Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics, or altered clearance, compared to younger, healthier patients.
Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating SEGLENTIS and when SEGLENTIS is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration.
Severe Hypotension: Tramadol, a component of SEGLENTIS, may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics). Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating dosage of SEGLENTIS. In patients with circulatory shock, tramadol may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of SEGLENTIS in patientswith circulatory shock.
Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness: In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), SEGLENTIS may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with SEGLENTIS. Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of SEGLENTIS in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Risk of Use in Patients with GI Conditions: The tramadol in SEGLENTIS may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.
Anaphylactic Reactions: Seek emergency help if an anaphylactic reaction occurs.
Hepatotoxicity: As tramadol and celecoxib are both extensively metabolized by the liver, the use of SEGLENTIS in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment is not recommended.Inform patients of the warning signs andsymptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, diarrhea, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur(e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), discontinue SEGLENTIS immediately, and perform a clinical evaluation of the patient.Inform patients of warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity.
Hypertension: NSAIDs, including celecoxib, a component in SEGLENTIS, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. Monitor blood pressure during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.
Heart Failure and Edema: Avoid the use of SEGLENTIS in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If SEGLENTIS is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.
Renal Toxicityand Hyperkalemia: Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, or liver dysfunction; those taking diuretics, ACE-inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs); and the elderly. Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs, even in some patients without renal impairment.
Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity: SEGLENTIS is contraindicated in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma. Monitor patients with preexisting asthma (without aspirin sensitivity).
Serious Skin Reactions: Serious skin reactions have occurred following treatment with celecoxib, a component of SEGLENTIS, including erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. These serious events may occur without warning and can be fatal. Discontinue SEGLENTIS at first appearance of skin rash or other signs of hypersensitivity.
Fetal Toxicity: Limit use of NSAIDs, including SEGLENTIS, between about 20 to 30 weeks in pregnancy due to the risk of oligohydramnios/fetal renal dysfunction. Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy due to the risks of oligohydramnios/fetal renal dysfunction and premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.
Hematologic Toxicity: Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with SEGLENTIS has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit. NSAIDs, including SEGLENTIS, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding.
Withdrawal: Do not abruptly discontinue SEGLENTIS in a patient physically dependent on opioids. When discontinuing SEGLENTIS in a physically dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage. Rapid tapering of tramadol in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain. Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including SEGLENTIS. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
Driving and Operating Machinery: SEGLENTIS may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of SEGLENTIS and know how they will react to the medication.
Masking of Inflammation and Fever: The pharmacological activity of SEGLENTIS in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.
Hyponatremia: Hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) has been reported with the use of tramadol, a component of SEGLENTIS, and many cases are severe (sodium level < 120 mmol/L). Most cases of hyponatremia occurred in females over the age of 65 and within the first week of therapy. In some reports, hyponatremia resulted from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hyponatremia (e.g., confusion, disorientation),during treatment with SEGLENTIS, especially during initiation of therapy. If signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are present, initiate appropriate treatment (e.g., fluid restriction) and discontinue SEGLENTIS.
Hypoglycemia: Cases of tramadol-associated hypoglycemia have been reported, some resulting in hospitalization. In most cases, patients had predisposing risk factors (e.g., diabetes). If hypoglycemia is suspected, monitor blood glucose levels and consider drug discontinuation as appropriate.
Most common adverse reactions (incidence >5% and > placebo) for SEGLENTIS are nausea (30%), vomiting (16%), dizziness (17%), headache (12%), somnolence (8%).
Select Drug Interactions
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics: Avoid use with SEGLENTIS because they may reduce analgesic effect of SEGLENTIS or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis (e.g., warfarin, aspirin, SSRIs/SNRIs): Monitor patients for bleeding who are concomitantly taking SEGLENTIS with drugs that interfere with hemostasis. Concomitant use of SEGLENTIS and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended.
ACE Inhibitors, ARBs, or Beta-Blockers: Concomitant use with SEGLENTIS may diminish the antihypertensive effect of these drugs. Monitor blood pressure.
ACE Inhibitors and ARBs: Concomitant use with SEGLENTIS in elderly, volume depleted, or those with renal impairment may result in deterioration of renal function. In such high-risk patients, monitor for signs of worsening renal function.
Diuretics: NSAIDs can reduce natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazide diuretics. Monitor patients to assure diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects.
Digoxin: Concomitant use with SEGLENTIS can increase serum concentration and prolong half-life of digoxin. Monitor serum digoxin levels.
Drug Abuse and Dependence
SEGLENTIS contains tramadol, a Schedule IV controlled substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids and can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion. All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, since use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised. Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.
Physical dependence is a physiological state in which the body adapts to the drug after a period of regular exposure, resulting in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosagereduction of a drug.
SEGLENTIS is a combination drug composed of tramadol and celecoxib. The clinical presentation of overdose may include the signs and symptoms of tramadol toxicity, celecoxib toxicity or both.
Acute overdosage with tramadol can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, QT prolongation, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, seizures, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations.
Deaths due to overdose have been reported with abuse and misuse of tramadol. Review of case reports has indicated that the risk of fatal overdose is further increased when tramadol is abused concurrently with alcohol or other CNS depressants, including other opioids.
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. GI bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare.
For more information on appropriate treatment of overdose with SEGLENTIS, see the full Prescribing Information.
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics, including SEGLENTIS, outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products. Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers.
To obtain further information on the opioid analgesic REMS and for a list of accredited REMS continuing education, call 1-800-503-0784, or log on to www.opioidanalgesicrems.com.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. at 1-888-SEGLENTIS or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
For additional information please see full Prescribing Information, including Boxed Warning, and Medication Guide, for SEGLENTIS.
Intended for healthcare professionals of the United States of America only.